|Local currency||Pula (BWP)|
For the energy sector as well, there are ambitious plans that will improve the connection with neighboring countries (Botswana imports 80% of its energy needs) and increase domestic production. Access to electricity in Botswana is estimated at 60% for the total population, comprising 72% of the urban population and 37% of the rural. Botswana's high renewable energy potential, especially in solar and biomass, remains largely unused. The government recognizes the need to create a regulatory framework that provides incentives for the development of renewable energy that will ensure the achievement of autonomy and independence in the sector. A change in government intentions was made evident with the Ministry's change of name from Ministry of Mineral Resources and Water Affairs (MIRWA) to Ministry of Mineral Resources, Green Technology and Energy Security (MMGE), to underline a new commitment in the introduction of renewable energies. Concerning to the bioenergetic potential, and specifically the thermal energy for domestic use, a transition from the use of wood to more sustainable means, together with a distribution of economically sustainable and low consumption stoves and materials with high thermal efficiency, it would be desirable. In urban areas, almost 70% of families use LPG which has higher costs than wood and is therefore inaccessible to the rest of the rural population. In its second statement to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Botswana said that wanted to replace firewood with the use of LPG and biogas. Coal and wood still represent the main source of energy for rural and low-income communities, being used by 53% of rural families. Firewood is mainly handpicked by individuals, particularly women, who try to satisfy their energy needs for cooking and heating. However, what results is a lack of timber and local impoverishment. The increase in firewood trade has led to deforestation and the consequent lack of wood in all areas of the country, except for the north. In the residential sector, firewood is used mainly by families of rural areas, who consume 70% of it, while families in urban residential areas consume 46% of it. So, for rural areas, replacing firewood with LPG is still a challenge. On the other hand, government institutions and small and medium-sized trading companies use wood diesel fuel as their main source of energy. Concerning wind energy, the low average wind speed recorded between 2.0 and 3.5 m/s is not considered sufficiently attractive for large-scale wind energy development. Botswana is not suited for a significant development of hydroelectric energy as it is characterized by scarce and irregular rains that have caused severe limitations an obstacles to water supply. Therefore, the potential of hydroelectric energy in the country is very limited. The biofuel sector remains stagnant due to regulatory restrictions that hinder the sector's growth. Furthermore, only two plants with energy potential were found in the territory, the jatropha and the sorghum. The former has been identified as the most promising energy crop for biodiesel production and can be found in the central region of the country.
|Official name||Republic of Cuba|
|Local currency||Peso (CUP)|
Like many other Caribbean islands, Cuba has great potential for renewables, including biofuels and biomass from the island’s sugar cane production, hydroelectric from its many rivers, wind and photovoltaic solar. Due to the challenges of the economic crisis and the subsequent ecological revolution undertaken, Cuba represents an interesting case study in terms of renewable energies potential and the efforts made to be self-sustainable. In this framework, since 2006, Cuba has installed 1854 diesel and fuel oil micro-electrical plants and 4000 emergency back-up systems, upgraded over 120.000 electrical posts, and incorporated renewable sources of energy through the installation of 100 wind measuring stations, 180 micro-hydro systems, over 8000 independent solar electric systems in rural areas and 300 biogas plants, bioethanol and sugarcane biomass. Today, 85% of the power generation matrix in Cuba is made up of fossil fuel consumption. Whilst, the remaining 15% is covered by renewable sources. Cuba relies heavily upon liquid fuels for electricity generation. Indeed, it has the 5th highest percentage of total energy derived from liquid fuels in the world. Specifically, of 19,366 GWh of gross electricity output in 2014, 61% was generated from fuel oil for centralized plants, 20% from fuel oil for distributed generators, 14% from natural gas, 4% from Independent Power Producer (IPP) oil including biodiesel from sugarcane biomass, and around 1% from other renewables. In 2019, 687,000 MWh have been generated from renewable energy sources (wind, hydropower, solar, cane and non-cane biomass), corresponding to 178,000 tons of fossil fuel that would have otherwise been generated. By 2030, predicted the increase of 24% or more in generation of electricity from renewable sources in the energy matrix, 7,000 GWh will be achieved and approximately 1 800 000 tons of fossil fuel will be saved. The most common renewable source of electricity in Cuba is the “Bagasse”, the dry pulp residue left over after sugar extraction from sugar cane. In 2009, the sugarcane energy’s production accounted for 3% of overall electricity production in the country, making up 80% of Cuba’s renewable profile at that time. Bagasse represents a high potential to boost the renewable energies production. Cuba has 57 sugarcane mills and 10 refineries that generated 730 GWh in 2017 and the country expects by 2027 to build up 25 bioelectric plants with a potential of 872 MW. Cuba’s solar industry is small but growing at a face-pace. In 2009, the country had only 1.8 MW of total installed solar PV capacity and 3.8 MW installed capacity in 8,000 solar water heaters. In recent years, Cuba has begun investing in utility-scale solar projects because of its high solar potential. The daily average solar energy that reaches Cuban land throughout the year is 5 kWh/m2. A key barrier to investment in further solar energy is the initial capital costs to build PV systems. To reach its goal of 700 MW of solar capacity by 2030, the government is looking for further private investment, including investment in a 100 MW plant in Cuba’s western provinces. Wind generation is further developed than solar but still makes up only a small portion of total capacity. Currently, the country has 11.2 MW installed capacity in four wind parks. To reach its goal of 633 MW of wind generation capacity, Cuba plans to build 13 wind farms along the northern coast of the country. Foreign capital has been earmarked to build seven out of 13 of these wind farms. Speaking about hydropower, Cuba has about 650 MW in installed hydro power capacity. Most of hydropower comes from isolated systems in off-grid areas. However, a large portion of unutilized potential is in protected areas. Thus, Cuban leaders do not appear to be planning an expansion of the resource. Cuba has been identified as one of the most vulnerable countries to the effects of climate change, due to its territorial characteristics. Hence, among the main strategies for adaptation and mitigation to climate change can be found the shift of the energy matrix towards the use of renewable resources to foster the adaptation and mitigation to the climate change and to lower the emission of carbon dioxide. Since 2008, Cuba has been undergoing a political and economic transformation process to modify its energy matrix, setting itself the goal of generating 24 % of its electricity in 2030 through renewable energy boosting the progressive replacement of fossil fuels and the stimulation of investment and the research of the production of equipment. It is forecasted that Cuba will stop emitting more than six million tons of CO2 annually, if it will succeed in increasing its potential to generate electricity from sugarcane, forest-fired biomass, solar plants, hydropower and wind plants.
|Official name||Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia|
|Political capital||Addis Ababa|
|Local currency||Ethiopian birr (ETB)|
For many decades, the development of the electricity sector was based on the exploitation of huge hydro resources that made the electric power system dependent on water and therefore particularly exposed to climate change problematics. About 95% of the electricity generation in Ethiopia comes from hydro power plants, meanwhile the non-hydro renewable sources can be efficiently exploited in the power sector to improve energy diversification and support both short-and long-term power system resilience.
The development of Ethiopia’s renewable energy sector has been one of the leading new drivers of economic growth in the country. Its ample resources and ambitious electrification targets, together with its relatively high-level of industrialisation (compared to other African nations), make it a prime location for investors in renewables.
Ethiopia is endowed with abundant renewable energy sources and has a potential to generate over 60,000 megawatts (MW) of electric power from hydroelectric, wind, solar, biomass and geothermal sources. Currently it only has approximately 2,300 MW of installed generation capacity to serve a population of over 95 million people. The GTPII has set new targets to increase generation capacity to over 17,000 MW by 2020, with an overall potential of 35,000 MW by 2037 which would help sustain Ethiopia’s continued economic growth and enable it to became a regional renewable energy hub in East Africa.
To set the basis for such developments, the Government of Ethiopia has launched one of the most successful electrification programs in Sub-Saharan Africa, expanding the electricity grid to nearly 60 percent of the country—from only 667 towns and villages to approximately 6000.
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|Official name||Republic of Kazakhstan|
|Local currency||Tenge (₸) (KZT)|
|Official languages||Kazakh (official state language) Russian (co-official)|
Renewable Energy Sources
According to the 2012 Strategy Kazakhstan-2050 and the Concept for transition of the Republic of Kazakhstan to Green Economy, the transition will be based on seven key areas: development of renewable energy sources; energy saving and energy efficiency; development of sustainable and efficient organic agriculture; waste management; rational use of water resources; development of “green transport”; conservation and effective management of ecosystems.
Among the ambitious targets set in the national strategic documents, it is planned to increase the share of alternative and renewable energy in the power mix up to 50% by 2050 with intermediate targets of 3% by 2020, 6% by 2025 and 10% by 2030. Furthermore, Kazakhstan is committed to: decrease energy intensity of GDP by 10% until 2015, 25% by 2020 and 30% by 2030 compared to 2008 baseline (energy efficiency); reduce its GHGs emissions by between 15 and 25% by 2030 compared with 1990 levels; resolve drinking water supply by 2020 and agricultural water supply by 2040; increase agricultural land productivity by factor of 1.5 by 2020.
Moreover, the transition to a green growth model will allow for additional GDP growth of 3%, create more than 500.000 new workplaces, create new industries and services, universally ensure high standards of quality of life for the population. Overall investments required for transition to a green economy will be about 1% of GDP per annum, which is equivalent to USD 3 to 4 billion.
According to the KAZEnergy Report 2019, the current structure of electricity production is dominated by coal-fired generation (70.4%), followed by gas fired plants (19.4%), hydropower plants (9.7%), wind and solar plants (0.4% and 0.1%, respectively).
According to the Ministry of Energy, in 2016 the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in electricity generation reached 0.98%, including small HPPs. The target for renewable energy development is to increase the share of RES in total electricity production by 2020 to 3% (1,700 MW), which would include wind power (933 MW), solar (467 MW), small hydro (290 MW) and biogas (10 MW).
At the governmental level, the country is shifting the attention of the transition to green economy. In July 2019, the newly established Kazakh Ministry of Ecology, Geology and Natural Resources received the duties of other ministries focusing on environment, managing water resources and geological issues. In particular, the Ministry of Energy transferred its authority to the state policy of environmental protection, solid waste management, protection, control and supervision of the rational use of natural resources.
As a matter of fact, Kazakhstan is working to expand the use of RES. According to the results of 2019, 90 renewable energy facilities with an installed capacity of 1,061 MW are operating in the country. In the first nine months of 2019, they generated 1.65 billion kWh of electric energy, which is 65% more than in the same period in 2018. According to preliminary data, the share of renewable energy from the total electricity generation is estimated at 2.3%. In 2018, the indicator was 1.3%.
Kazakhstan has the potential of wind, solar, hydrothermal power and the hydro power of small rivers. The great RES potential of Kazakhstan exceeds 1 trillion kWh per year (about 10 times the energy consumption in the country).
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|Official name||Republic of Kenya|
|Local currency||Kenyan Shilling (KES)|
|Official languages||English, Kiswahili|
Access to energy and Current Energy Mix: The renewable energy sector is gaining momentum in the country. Kenya’s Third Medium Term Plan for the implementation of Vision 2030 in the period 2018 – 2022 specifically addresses this issue by means of promoting green growth development and climate change governance. It also targets increase in power generation, emphasizing the pivotal role of renewable energy sources in the creation of a reliable, adequate and cost-effective energy supply regime to support industrial development. Furthermore, the country’s Green Economy Strategy and Implementation Plan for 2016 – 2030 calls for increasing the share of renewable resources in the country’s power mix up to 70% and developing innovative financial instruments, e.g. debt financing aimed at directing capital to sustainable infrastructure. President Kenyatta raised the bar in 2018, targeting 100% green energy sufficiency by 2020. Notably, Kenya’s current energy mix comprises power from a variety of sources: 50% geothermal, 30% hydro, 6% diesel, 12% wind, 2% solar and import.
Renewable Energy Sources: The development of the renewable energy sector has been greatly facilitated by the country’s impressive natural resource endowment for the generation of green energy. In fact, Kenya is characterized by high insolation rates (namely 4-6kWh/m2/day levels of insolation), with an average of 6/7 peak sunshine hours. Moreover, excellent wind regime areas are located in the northwest of the country (e.g. Marsabit and Turkana), as well as at the edges of the Rift Valley. It is also to be noted that Kenya is the leader in the African continent as for geothermal power production, due to the high temperature characterizing the Rift Valley setting. In addition, it is estimated that the country has a potential of about 6,000MW including large and small hydros, with hydropower potential concentrated in five geographical regions, Kenya’s major drainage basins: namely, Lake Victoria basin, Rift Valley basin, Athi River basin and Tana River and Ewaso Ngiro North River basins. As for bioenergy, there is potential in the country as for municipal waste, sisal and coffee production, as well as in the tea industry.
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|Local currency||Sol (PEN)|
|Official languages||Spanish, Quechua, Aymara, other indigenous languages|
Current energy mix and renewable energy potential: Peru, as many other Latin American countries, has an abundance of conventional resources alongside a remarkable renewable energy potential due to its territorial characteristics. Peru is considered to have a ‘high’ potential for wind, solar, hydro and geothermal, a ‘high-medium’ potential for biomass and an ‘unknown’ potential for ocean-based (2016). Its energy matrix was considered one of the cleanest in Latin America in 2019, with 50% deriving from conventional hydroelectric power, 5% from non-conventional renewable energy resources and the remaining part from thermoelectric power. The percentage of the latter saw an increase in the last 15 years due to the discovery of natural gas deposits in Camisea, which captivated the attention of the Peruvian energy sector provoking a slowdown in non-conventional renewable energy investments. As of 2017, the latter accounted for 2.7% of the energy distributed through the country’s power grid, known as the National Interconnected Electric System (SEIN, Sistema Eléctrico Interconectado Nacional). This System provides access to electricity to the 85% of the population, mainly located in urban areas, while isolated systems cover the rural areas of the country. As of May 2019, with a mix of contributions from hydroelectric, wind, biomass and solar facilities, Peru maintained 14,900 MW of renewable energy generation capacity. Hydroelectric and wind provided 43% and 40%, respectively; biomass sourced a further 11.6%; and solar produced the remaining 5%. Through projects such as ‘Repartición’, a 22-MW solar plant finalized in 2012 which was the largest of its kind in South America at the time, the country earned a reputation as a renewables pioneer in the region. The development of the energy sector in Peru, which witnessed an increase of 186% over the past 20 years, was boosted by the large privatization started in 1992. Peru is currently able to cover the total of its energy demand, although it has been engaging in electricity purchase with Ecuador, concerning the provision of the areas of the North of the Country. The potential to easily have exceeding energetic production is enabling Peru to consider exporting energy to neighbouring countries, namely Chile and Ecuador.
Technologies for climate change mitigation and adaptation: Peru has been identified as one of the most vulnerable countries to the effects of climate change, due to the variety of its microclimates. In addition, its poverty rates, especially in the rural areas, represent a limitation to the application of adaptation measures in those same territories, which for instance will witness a damage of small scale agricultural production directly affecting livelihoods. Hence, among the main strategies for climate action can be found poverty reduction and the shift of the energy matrix towards the use of renewable resources. The country aims to continue its investments in the energy sector in a structured way by promoting the establishment of an efficient infrastructure for gas, in order to guarantee security of supply and decentralized power generation. In a first step, infrastructure will be developed towards the South and then towards the centre and the North of the country. In the coming decade, natural gas will play a major role in the energy mix. Thereafter Peru’s long term transition to a sustainable energy future will be done by a gradual substitution of natural gas by renewable energy sources (hydro, solar, wind, geothermal). Aligned with this objective, in 2018, Peru added roughly 500 MW of green capacity, for instance through projects such as the opening of the 145-MW Rubí solar photovoltaic (PV) plant. Moquegua, the department near the Chilean border that hosts the facility, has one of the highest PV electricity potentials of any region in the world. In the 2014, the Ministry of the Environment identified the potential for two types of technologies for climate change mitigation and adaptation: on one hand, improvements on solid waste management through recycling and composting technologies, which would allow the reduction of CO2 emissions while improve living standards for the population; on the other, water resources management, which includes technologies to capture and conserve water and the prevention of damages from extreme climatic events, such as ‘El Niño’ in 2017, which are expected to increase in the future as a consequence of climate change. Peru aims to progress in its transition towards a low carbon energy mix and set the objective to reach a 60% renewable energy and 40% gas in the electricity mix by 2025, and 15% of renewables in its energy mix by 2030, reducing the imports of gasoline and diesel, mostly used in the transport sector. Moreover, by 2021, the government expects to reach a 100% coverage in electrification, closing the gap in rural areas.
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